Delphinium L.

Verbascum L.

New species of Verbasum:
Verbascum birjandense Sotoodeh
Verbascum urumiense Sotoodeh
Verbascum carmanicum subsp. kermanense (Hub.-Mor.) Sotoodeh, Attar, Andalo & Civeyrel
Verbascum parsana Sotoodeh, Attar & Civeyrel
Verbascum shahsavarensis Sotoodeh, Attar & Civeyrel

Record for flora of Iran:
Verbascum songaricum subsp. subdecurrens
Verbascum oreophilum var. oreophilum,
Verbascum cheiranthifolium var. asperulum

Typification and New Synonym:
Verbascum aspinum = Verbascum stachydiforme

* Sotoodeh A., Attar F., Laitung B., Civeyrel L. (2022). Verbascum birjandense and V. urumiense (Scrophulariaceae), two new endemic species for Flora of Iran. Phytotaxa, 538: 035–044.

* Sotoodeh A., Attar F., Andalo C., Mirtajaldini M. And L. Civeyrel. (2018). Focusing on three Verbascum L. taxa (Scrophulariaceae) of the Flora of Iran. Adansonia, 40:171-181.

* Sotoodeh A., F. Attar and L. Civeyrel (2017). Verbascum songaricum subsp. Subdecurrens: a New Record; Typification and True Identity of V. aspinum as a New Synonym of V. stachydiforme in the Flora of Iran. Kew Bulletin, 72: 24.

* Sotoodeh A., L. Civeyrel, F. Attar (2016). A new species of Verbascum L. (Scrophulariaceae) from the Gilan province (Iran), based on morphological and molecular evidences. Adansonia 38: 127-132.

* Sotoodeh A., L. Civeyrel, F. Attar (2015). Verbascum shahsavarensis (Scrophulariaceae), a new species for Flora of Iran. Phytotaxa, 203: 76-80.

* Sotoodeh A., Civeyrel L., Zamani A., Attar F. (2014). Verbascum oreophilum var. oreophilum and Verbascum cheiranthifolium var. asperulum (Scrophulariaceae) Two new records for the flora of Iran. Phytotaxa 173: 205-210.

Cousinia Cass.

Two new species of Cousinia are described from Iran. Cousinia bornmulleriana from the west that can be placed in sect. Haussknechtii based on some key characters such as flower numbers, phyllary numbers and the inflorescence form traits. This species can be also compared with its closest relative C. haussknechtii. and C. karkasensis.
The second new species, C. semnanensis, from North East of Iran, belongs to the sect. Stenocephalae for its flower numbers, winged stem, and phyllaries shape, and is compared to C. alexeenkoana and C. glaucopsis as it’s close relative.

Keywords. Cousinia, taxonomy, morphology, Bornmüller, flora of Iran

* Attar F., Maroofi H., Mirtadzadini M., Sotoodeh A.  (2022 Accepted) Two new species of genus Cousinia (Asteraceae, Cardueae) from W and NE Iran. Nova Biologica Reperta, 000: 000-000

Cynoglosseae (Boraginaceae)

The macro and micro-morphology of flowers and nutlets of 35 species of Boraginaceae belonging to the Tribe Cynoglosseae have been studied by light and scanning electron microscopes.
Paracaryum (8 species), Mattiastrum (11 species), Microparacaryum (4 species), Rindera (4 species), Cynoglossum (3 species), Solenanthus (2 species), Trachelanthus (1 species), and Lindelofia (1 species).

Nutlets morphology of the examined species showed significant variation in shape, size, and surface ornamentation.

Two main types of nutlets were defined:
Type I, without a wing, nutlets densely glochidiate,
in Cynoglossum, Solenanthus, Trachelanthus, and Lindelofia;
Type II, winged nutlets, in all examined species of Paracaryum, Mattiastrum,
Microparacaryum, and Rindera.

Our results highlighted the importance of the floral and nutlet characters for the identification of the most studied species, based on cluster analysis.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the macro and micro-morphological characteristics of the studied species for the taxonomic identification and species delimitation at the tribal level.
For a quick and easy identification of the species, identification keys based on floral characters have been developed.

Keywords: Floral structure; fruit morphology; Micro-morphology; PCA analysis; Boraginaceae; Cynoglosseae; Iran

* Attar F., Sotoodeh A., Sheidai M., Esfandni-Bozchloyi S., & M. Mirtadzadini (2021) Taxonomic Importance Of Nutlets And Flowers In Tribe Cynoglosseae (Boraginaceae). Iranian Journal of Botany 27 (2): 146-163 10.22092/ijb.2021.355061.1330

Onosma L.

* Attar F., Mirtadzadini M. & Sotoodeh A.* (2023). Onosma deltiphylla and O. humilis (Boraginaceae), two new species from Iran. Ann. Bot. Fennici 60: 161–166.

Onosma L. section Protonosma Popov subsect. Rostellatae Riedl
During a survey of the genus Onosma L. section Protonosma Popov subsect. Rostellatae Riedl, we examined several populations assigned to Onosma rostellata Lehm. (sensu lato) using morphology and molecular evidence.
Our morphological review revealed a hairy corolla outside in all specimens, an anther length equal to the filament length, and nectariferous rings hairy or glabrous, as opposed to the descriptions provided in Flora Iranica and Flora of Turkey.
We updated itsdescription which were in contradiction with the character states found on the type specimen.
Five new taxa were identified among the specimens identified as O. rostellata to date and described based on molecular data and morphological examination: Onosma khatamsazii Attar, Mirtadzadini & Sotoodeh – a new species from Kermanshah province, 
O. fareghanensis Attar, Mirtadzadini & Sotoodeh – a new species from the mountainous region of the north of Hormozgan province, and 
Onosma maharluensis Attar, Mirtadzadini & Sotoodeh – a new species including two subspecies, namely “O. maharluensis Attar, Mirtadzadini & Sotoodeh subsp. maharluensis and O. maharluensis subsp. boyer-ahmadica Attar, Sotoodeh & Mirtadzadini” from Iran.

* Attar F.*, Sotoodeh A.*, Mirtadzadini M., Daemi M., Civeyrel L. (2023). New findings in Onosma section Protonosma (Boraginaceae) using morphological and molecular evidence. Botany letters 170: 285–302. (*equal contribution).

Four new species:
Onosma khorramabadensis Attar, Mirtadz. & Sotoodeh,
O. lorestanica Attar & Sotoodeh,
O. sahandica Attar & Sotoodeh, and
O. kerendica Attar & Mirtadz. are described as new species from Lorestan, Eest Azarbayejan and Kermanshah provinces of Iran. Based on Flora Iranica, all the new species can be placed in the sect. Onosma subsect. Asterotricha considering their stellate-hairy tubercles on leaves.
The first new species has some similarities to Onosma bilabiata and O. elwendica based on having accrescent and two connected calyx lobes, but can be distinguished by its stem leaves shape and size, elongate inflorescence and more characters.
O. lorestanica is close to O. elwendica by having spathulate leaves shape and nearly same fruiting calyx length; however it differs by its dense short capitate cyme in flowering time, tubercles density and rays arrangements on the tubercles.
O. sahandica can be also close to O. bilabiata and O. elwendica for its fruiting calyx length and corolla color, but differs by having free calyx lobes and not accrescent at fruiting time.
O. kerendica is related to O. cardiostegia by its habit and inflorescence shape, but can be distinguished by length of lowest bracts, its inflorescence size in fruiting time, pedicel length and filaments attachment place.

Keywords: Asterotricha, Boraginaceae, Iran, new species, Onosma

* Attar F.*, Sotoodeh A.*, Mirtadzadini M. (2020) Four new species in subsection Asterotricha for the genus Onosma L. (Boraginaceae) from flora of Iran. Feddes Repert, 131: 146-158.  (*equal contribution).

Centaurea L.

 Achene morphology of 49 taxa of the genus Centaurea L. was studied in terms of 19 different characteristics. On the basis of the variation in these features, some sections, such as sect. Cyanus with hairy hilum, were separated.
Despite various differences, C. leuzeoides and C. gilanica were categorized in the section Psephelloideae, a section with lots of character variations within its species. Also, C. albonitens has different characteristics in comparison with other taxa within section Phaeopappus, for example features such as pappus color and the ratio of pappus length to that of achene separated the species from other members of the section. The last but not the least, highly different characteristics were observed in the achene morphology of C. phlomoides as compared with other species in section Cynaroides. Differences such as short pappus and hilum length were found to separate C. phlomoides from other members of sect. Cynaroides.
In conclusion, on the basis of the findings of this research, most achene morphological characteristics can be appropriately used as key features for the differentiation of sections in the genus Centaurea. An identification key based on the features of the achene, images related to the achene of the studied species were also presented.

Keywords. Compositae, Flora Iranica, identification key, Iran, pappus

* Rakizadeh, S., Attar, F. and Sotoodeh, A. (2019). Taxonomic significance of achene morphology on the Centaurea L. (Asteraceae). Nova Biol. Reperta 6: 352-366.

Teucrium L.

A new endemic species from western Iran, Teucrium elymaiticum Attar, Sotoodeh & Mirtadzadini, sp. nov. is described. It belongs to section Scordium. Considering the combination of some characteristics like indumentum, bracts, pedicel, calyx, corolla size, and nutlet shape and size, the new species is related to T. scordium subsp. scordioides (Schreb.) Arcang.. The differences between these two species are highlighted.
Keywords. Teucrium elymaiticum; section Scordium; Lamiaceae; taxonomy; endemism; Ilam; Iran.

* Attar, F., Sotoodeh, A., & Mirtadzadini, M. (2019). ’Teucrium elymaiticum’ (Lamiaceae): a new species for Flora of Iran. Mediterranean Botany40: 203-207.

Astragalus L.

This work is an updated phylogenetic study on the huge genus Astragalus using nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) data. Seven groups, each encompassing several sections, corresponding to the same number of clades that appeared, were recognized in the phylogenetic tree. A short description for each group along with the name of appropriate sections as well as a diagnostic key regarding new reliable morphological characters for these groups is provided.

* Maassoumi A. A., Sh. Kazempour Osaloo, A. Sotoodeh (2016). A new infrageneric grouping of Astragalus (Fabaceae). The Iranian Journal of Botany, 22: 88-100. DOI: 10.22092/IJB.2016.107941